當前位置:首頁  >>  新聞網  >>  媒體報道
媒體丨披著華麗外衣的第三代毒品正滲入中國
發布時間:2019年07月26日

原文來源:2019年7月23日 Golbal Times 原作者:胡雨薇 編譯:司法鑒定科學研究院

“包裝精美的巧克力和小餅干令人垂涎,卻很難讓人想象其真身是毒品。以新精神活性物質為代表的第三代毒品如今正通過一種更具欺騙性的形式誘惑著中國的年輕人們。這類毒品大部分傾向于來自海外,特別是對毒藥物管制在法律上有短板的國家?!弊冶硎?。

新精神活性物質被聯合國毒品與犯罪辦公室定義為:未被國際禁毒公約《1961年麻醉品單一公約》和《1971年精神藥物公約》列管,但存在濫用并會對公眾健康帶來威脅的物質。

“為了逃避打擊和混淆視聽,這些走私而來的物質通常偽裝成讓人難以發現的奶茶粉、跳跳糖和巧克力等零食。而對于已經在中國被列管的毒藥物,違法分子們對其化學分子結構進行調整,構成新的化學合成物,使其通過相關測試?!彼痙蒲а芯吭悍ㄒ蕉疚锘а芯渴腋敝魅畏ㄒ絞Τ潞礁嫠呋非蚴北欽?。

案件表明,近年來制銷新精神活性物質的犯罪案件數量正在上升,而大部分嫌犯是年輕人,其中還包括高學歷的科研工作者,他們往往具備調整此類物質化學分子結構的能力。

在這些高學歷科研工作者中,有些人是故意為之,但大部分卻是被冠以科研之名的商業項目欺騙,并不知他們已被人利用。


新渠道

今年6月,據上海海關稱,一種名為氟硝西泮的日本處方藥已然成為毒品走私販的新寵,因為該藥物與酒精一起服用時具有類似或更強的興奮和致幻作用,因此毒販們將目標瞄準在了這種藥物上。該案抓獲犯罪團伙成員13人,查獲氟硝西泮367片。

今年年初以來,上海海關共查獲13起日本國際包裹走私毒品案,繳獲氟硝西泮275.49克。

上海海關表示,美國、加拿大、日本等發達國家已成為中國毒品走私的主要來源國。此外,新型毒品還以各種方式進行偽裝。一些走私毒販把“搖頭丸”毒品變成卡通形狀的“糖果”,而另一些人則把新精神藥物偽裝成常規的保健品,如維生素和鈣片,以迷惑海關官員。


不可逆轉的危害

“許多新精神活性物質比海洛因和嗎啡等現有毒品毒性更大,”陳航表示,“新精神活性物質沒有經過臨床安全測試。人們對這些毒藥物的不良健康影響和社會危害知之甚少,這給成癮的預防和治療帶來了相當大的挑戰?!?/p>

“根據已發表的文獻,新精神活性物質具有極高的致死率,”陳航解釋說,“長期使用這些物質會損害人體中樞神經系統,甚至會對大腦中的海馬體和記憶回路等造成不可逆轉的損害?!?/p>

“對于青少年人群來說,此類風險更甚。新精神活性物質可以導致不同程度和類型的精神障礙,例如行為能力失控,更甚則可以導致他們忘卻道德的約束,實施暴力犯罪和性侵犯?!彼痙蒲а芯吭悍ㄒ蕉疚锘а芯渴抑魅瘟蹺案嫠呋非蚴北欽?。


新密碼

“過去的兩年里,含有新精神活性物質的電子煙在全球范圍內流行了起來。送檢到司法鑒定科學研究院的電子煙油往往被鑒定出含有高純度的合成大麻素。此類案件在暑假期間很常見,這些毒藥物流入的增加在一定程度上受到歸國留學生的影響?!繃蹺氨硎?。

毒品制造商們一旦發現某種毒品受到管制,他們會迅速開發出新的未被列管的精神活性物質。陳航表示,“這些新的化學合成物的成分往往是未知的,我們必須像破解密碼那樣破譯其中的成分?!?/p>

“新型毒品的篩查和興起是一場貓抓老鼠的游戲,但是貓的速度正在越來越快?!背潞剿?。

盡管在新精神活性物質的防控方面,中國仍在努力加大監管力度,但中國的新精神活性物質司法鑒定技術在國際上已列于第一梯隊。目前,中國還在許多城市采用了基于廢水的流行病學技術(在比利時和德國等許多國家普遍使用),該技術通過污水數據的分析來偵測毒藥物的使用情況。

陳航表示,“中國還與發達國家合作以促使對毒藥物的鑒別和管控的手段更加多元化?!?/p>

今年4月,中國對芬太尼類物質實施整類列管,矛頭直指合成阿片類這一致死率最高的物質,加大力度、嚴厲打擊其非法制造、分銷和走私。


原文:

Deceptively packaged 3rd generation drugs infiltrate China

By Hu Yuwei Source:Global Times Published: 2019/7/23 19:03:40

Beautifully packaged chocolates and cookies are so appetizing that you wouldn't think they were drugs. The third-generation of drugs represented by new psychoactive substances (NPS) is now attracting many Chinese youngsters in a more deceptive way. They tend to come mostly from overseas, especially from countries with less stringent drug control laws, said experts.

New psychoactive substances are defined by the UN Office on Drugs and Crime as "substances of abuse, either in a pure form or a preparation, that are not controlled by the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs or the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances, but which may pose a public health threat."

In order to escape the crackdown and to confuse the masses, the smuggled substances are commonly hidden in snacks, such as milk tea powder, popping candy and chocolate, making them difficult to discover. For substances which are already regulated in China, suspects can change their molecular structure of to have the item pass testing, Chen Hang, deputy director of the toxicology chemistry laboratory at the Academy of Forensic Science (AFS), told the Global Times.

According to the cases Chen has been exposed to, crimes including producing and selling NPS have been rising in recent years. Most of the suspects are young people, including many highly educated scientific researchers who have the ability to conduct chemical transformations of drugs.

Some commit crimes knowingly, while others chemically alter molecular structures in the name of corporate scientific projects without knowing their real applications.


New Channels

A Japanese prescription drug has become a new favorite of drug dealers, according to Shanghai customs in June. The prescription drug, flurazepam, is targeted by smugglers who seek to smuggle it into China because of its similar or stronger excitatory and hallucinogenic effects when being taken with alcohol. Thirteen gang members have been arrested and 367 flurazepam tablets seized.

Since the beginning of this year, Shanghai customs has detected 13 cases of drug smuggling in international parcels sent from Japan, and has seized a total of 275.49 grams of flurazepam.?

Shanghai customs noted that the US, Canada, Japan and other developed countries have become major sources of drugs smuggled into China. In addition, the new drugs are disguised in various ways. Some smugglers turn ecstasy into cartoon-shaped "candies," while others disguise new psychotropic drugs as routine health care products such as vitamins and calcium tablets to confusing customs officers.


Irreversible Harm

Many new psychoactive substances are more toxic than established drugs such as heroin and morphine, said Chen. "NPS has not been tested for clinical safety. Little is known about the adverse health effects and social harm they pose, resulting in a considerable challenge for addiction prevention and treatment."

According to published literature, NPS are highly lethal. Long-term use of these substances can damage the central nervous system and even cause irreversible damage to the hippocampus and memory circuits, Chen elaborated.

For adolescents, the risks can double. NPS abuse may lead to different levels and types of mental disorders, leading to uncontrollable behaviors or, more seriously, can lead people to forget their morals and commit violence or sexual assault, Liu Wei, director of the forensic toxicology laboratory at the AFS, told the Global Times.


A new code

Liu said that NPS contained in e-cigarettes has been epidemic around the world for the past two years. The e-cigarette oil submitted to AFS for testing often contains high-purity synthetic cannabinoids. Such cases are frequent during the summer holidays, and the increased flow of drugs is partly driven by returning overseas students, according to Liu.

To evade discovery, drug-makers will quickly develop new, non-listed psychoactive substances once a certain strain is found to be under control. "The compositions of the new compounds they have created are relatively unknown, so it's like we have to crack a code to decipher the ingredients," Chen told the Global Times.

The emergence and screening of new drugs is a cat-and-mouse game, but the speed of the cat has become faster and faster, Chen said.

China is among international leaders in NPS identification technology despite the surveillance efforts needing to be stepped-up further to prevent an increased domestic spread. China has also adopted the wastewater-based epidemiology technology - commonly used in many countries such as Belgium and Germany - in many cities to detect drug use by analyzing sewage data.

It is also cooperating with developed countries in diversifying forms of drug recognition and control, Chen noted.

China controlled all fentanyl-related analogs in April, in a move that aims to step up efforts to stringently combat the illegal manufacturing, distribution and smuggling of the world's most lethal synthetic opioid.

Newspaper headline: Coded new drugs


友情鏈接 司法部 科學技術部 公安部 最高人民法院 國家標準化管理委員會 最高人民檢察院 悉尼fc 上海市科學技術委員會
 
司法鑒定科學研究院 版權所有
地址:上海市光復西路1347號
郵編:200063  電話:52361148
ICP許可證號:滬ICP備06050203號
微信訂閱號
快手播放次数赚钱 网上飞禽走兽数学打法 亲朋棋牌砸蛋登录 网店卖首饰赚钱 黑龙江省11选五走势图 极速快3玩法绝招 北京赛车pk10微信信誉群 移动云商城推广赚钱吗 吴京利用爱国题材赚钱 白金岛怎么赚钱 白小姐六合彩 新疆18选7开奖结果 真人棋牌游戏 澳洲幸运10微信群 爱丽丝游戏攻略 炒币可以赚钱吗